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Carnegie Endowment for International Peace


Nuclear Power Plant Exporters' Principles of Conduct

  • The Nuclear Power Plant Exporters' Principles of Conduct were established by the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace to complement the existing cooperation between international organizations and governments by encouraging the private sector to take the lead in regard to nuclear non-proliferation.
  • A total of 10 NPP vendors – KEPCO, WEC, GE-Hitachi, Hitachi-GE, ASE, AREVA, AECL, MHI, Toshiba, and ATMEA – were engaged in the establishment of the Principles.
  • The Nuclear Power Plant Exporters' Principles of Conduct address safety, stability, environmental protection, spent fuel management, nuclear liability, non-proliferation and nuclear ethics issues to serve as a guide for vendors when entering into a contract. They also guide countries that adopt their first NPP to voluntarily participate in NPP introduction and operation program.

  • Considering that responsible use of nuclear power plant technology is vital to help meet global energy requirements and address climate change in a sustainable manner;
    Desiring to continuously improve safety, security, and environmental protection;
    Conscious of the sensitive nature of nuclear materials and technology, and thus the necessity of using nuclear power plant technology exclusively for peaceful purposes;
    Inspired by and seeking to complement national laws and regulations, international laws and norms, and the recommendations of vital institutions such as the International Atomic Energy Agency that promote the peaceful use of nuclear technology as a safe, secure, reliable, and efficient source of energy;
    Committing to export strictly in compliance with Nuclear Suppliers Group guidelines and with the laws and policies of Vendor and Customer States;
    Recognizing that the establishment of any nuclear power program requires an effective legal and regulatory framework and technological and industrial infrastructure, and qualified personnel;
    Mindful that a harmful event at a nuclear power plant anywhere can be considered to be a harmful event everywhere, and limit the contributions of nuclear energy;
    Seeking to enhance public confidence by upholding high standards of transparency, integrity, ethical behavior, and social responsibility and to promote continuous improvement toward the implementation of global best practices;
    Acknowledging that Customer States have the ultimate responsibility to regulate the construction, operation, and decommissioning of nuclear power plants in their jurisdictions;
    Vendors adopting these Principles of Conduct will undertake good faith efforts to implement the best practices described in six principles: Safety, Security, Environmental Protection, Compensation for Nuclear Damage, Nonproliferation, and Ethics.
    These principles are based upon best practices derived from the experience of nuclear power plant vendors and operators and the guidelines of the International Atomic Energy Agency. They were developed for the public good over several years through a non-governmental consensus process facilitated by the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, with input and advice from regulators, operators, and internationally recognized experts.
    These Principles have been and will be reviewed and revised as appropriate, including to reflect the lessons learned from the Fukushima nuclear accident following the earthquake and tsunami.
    Participating Vendors express their intention to follow these principles in designing nuclear power plants and in performing their activities. Participating Vendors will inform their customers, suppliers, subcontractors, and other participants in the nuclear power plant industry about the nature, purposes, and benefits of these Principles of Conduct, and recommend their cooperation in applying them.
    These Principles are voluntary, create no legal duty, and are not legally binding, but nevertheless reflect the genuine aspiration of the participants to apply these principles and make a good faith effort to achieve these goals. The reference language of these Principles of Conduct is English.
  • PRINCIPLE 1. Safety, Health, and Radiological Protection
  • PRINCIPLE 2. Physical Security
  • PRINCIPLE 3. Environmental Protection and the Handling of Spent Fuel and Nuclear Waste
  • PRINCIPLE 4. Compensation for Nuclear Damage
  • PRINCIPLE 5. Nonproliferation and Safeguards
  • PRINCIPLE 6. Ethics

Nuclear Power Plant Exporters' Principles of Conduct

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World Nuclear Association

  • Headquartered in London, The WNA's major roles are as follows:
    • holding regular meetings between NPP regulatory institutions and policy-making authorities
    • operating an advisory body for commercial and technological exchange in the nuclear sector
    • building a network of nuclear fuel providers
    • providing the latest nuclear-related information online
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